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Civil-Comp Proceedings
ISSN 1759-3433
CCP: 84
Edited by: B.H.V. Topping, G. Montero and R. Montenegro
Paper 75

Application of Space Syntax for Resolving Working Space Conflicts in Building Construction

L.W. Wu, J.C. Chang and S.J. Guo

Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Full Bibliographic Reference for this paper
L.W. Wu, J.C. Chang, S.J. Guo, "Application of Space Syntax for Resolving Working Space Conflicts in Building Construction", in B.H.V. Topping, G. Montero, R. Montenegro, (Editors), "Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology", Civil-Comp Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 75, 2006. doi:10.4203/ccp.84.75
Keywords: space, syntax, working, conflict, building, construction.

Working space conflicts not only reduce working efficiency but also delay the entire construction schedule. Appropriate working space planning is the key to improve workflow efficiency and productivity. Many studies have revealed working space conflicts as major causes of productivity loss in construction. Previous research dealing with space conflicts analysis often focuses on the conflicts themselves rather than relationships between the conflicts and the entire working area. In order to resolve the problem of working space conflicts during the construction stage, a framework for working space planning and conflicts analysis is essential for building construction.

Space management involves three primary aspects of research: site layout planning, path planning and space scheduling. Site layout planning deals mainly with the layout of temporary facilities on the job site. Path planning studies focus on the shortest route for construction equipment and operations. Space scheduling combines all working elements (worker, equipment, material, path, temporary facilities and physical layouts) subjected to the variations of time frames or schedules, and thus eliminates or minimizes space conflicts between these working elements. Tommelein developed MovePlan to determine temporary facilities according to the CPM schedule [1]. Then, in 1997, a space-constrained resource-constrained scheduling system (SCaRC) was developed [2]. Riley defined construction-space use patterns in multistory buildings and presented a space planning method regarding various use patterns [3].

Space syntax is a set of techniques for analyzing spatial configurations. It was developed by Professor Bill Hillier in the 1980s as a tool to help architects simulate the potential effects of their design. This methodology has become an application tool in a variety of research and practice around the world. Space syntax application requires the CAD drawing to be transferred into a corresponding topological structure [4]. In this paper, both decomposition elements are used in the same time and in the same space to decompose the construction space. The convex space method can be used for a beam or column area, because whether moulds or steel constructed in the individual area do not affect the other areas. The other space could be separated by an axial line method for resources and workers. Then, a set of spatial analysis parameters can be calculated. Two main quantitative values can be found; respectively they are the integration value (Rn) and the control value (Cv). The integration value is calculated from the mean of the minimum relative depth from the root component, so the integrated value can be viewed as a comparative level. The control value shows the degree to which each axial line controls its immediate neighbourhoods. With the concept of space syntax and spatial analysis parameters, space attributes can be identified and analyzed for working space conflicts.

An underground parking construction was used as a real case in this study and proposed to verify the relationship between dynamic workflow and spatial analysis parameters. Working space conflicts often occurred between resource layout and the planned path. The best way to dealt with it is to move resources to an appropriate area located in a convenient position but will not affect accessibility of the other areas. Through the application of space syntax, the appropriate area for the resource layout will be found.

The application of the space syntax improves the conflict analysis procedure and helps the engineers resolve the working space conflicts in building construction.

Tommelein, I.D., and Zouein, P.P. "Interactive dynamic layout planning", J. Constr. Engr. and Mgmt., ASCE, 119(2), 266-287, 1993. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1993)119:2(266)
Thabet, W.Y. and Beliveau, Y.J. "SCaRC: Space-constrained resource-constrained scheduling system", J. Comp. in Civ. Engr., ASCE, 11(1), 48-59, 1997. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3801(1997)11:1(48)
Riley, D.R. "4D space planning specification development for construction work spaces", Proc., Int. Comp. Congress, ASCE, Boston, pp. 354-363, 1998.
B. Hillier et. al. "IDEAS ARE IN THINGS: an application of the space syntax method to discovering house genotypes", Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, volume 14, pp.363-364, 1987. doi:10.1068/b140363

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