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PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGY
Edited by: B.H.V. Topping, G. Montero and R. Montenegro
A Finite Element Model of Orthogonal Cutting
W. Mieszczak and J. Kosmol
Department of Machine Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
W. Mieszczak, J. Kosmol, "A Finite Element Model of Orthogonal Cutting", in B.H.V. Topping, G. Montero, R. Montenegro, (Editors), "Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology", Civil-Comp Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 226, 2006. doi:10.4203/ccp.83.226
Keywords: cutting, cutting forces, finite element modelling.
The paper presents a finite element method (FEM) model of orthogonal cutting (2D). The paper takes into account all aspects related to technique of modeling the cutting process: boundary conditions, material model of the workpiece, model of friction, heat generation due to plastic deformation and friction forces and heat transfer. The paper shows also cutting force components as the main goal of the simulation results. The simulations presented contain a wide range of geometrical parameters for the tool and cutting parameters.
The FE modeling of chip formation process was performed using the MSC.Marc code which offers the ability to make simulations of mechanical events, heat transfer analysis and the modeling of heat generation due to plastic work and friction forces. A scheme of the FE model is shown in Figure 1. The plane strain state is assumed in simulations.
The paper shows chip formation process during cutting carbon steel. This steel was modeled as an isotropic elastic-plastic material. The simulation included chagnes in the Young's modulus as a result of temperature variation. Flow stress was calculated according to the Johnson - Cook equation [1,2]. Similar to the mechanical properties, temperature dependent thermal properties of the material were entered into the MSC.Marc code. Research has shown that the friction coefficient in cutting conditions depends on normal stress between surfaces being in contact (rake face and chip). It has been shown  that friction coefficient decreases exponentially when the normal stress increases. According to this study friction model was used in simulation. Heat transfer conditions in cutting zone were entered according to reference .
In results of simulations values have been obtained for the cutting force components and acting on the rake face. The force is acting along the cutting velocity and is acting along the feed velocity.
The modelling presented gives the possibility of determining the influence of feed, rake angle and cutting velocity on cutting force components in the cutting process. The modelling shows that, as expected, rake angle and feed have a strong influence on the values of the cutting force components.
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