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Computational Science, Engineering & Technology Series
ISSN 1759-3158
Edited by: J.W. Bull
Chapter 10

Analysis and Design of Membrane Retrofit Concrete Masonry Walls for Blast Loads

L.G. Moradi 1 and J.S. Davidson 2

1Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering The University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States of America
2Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, AL, United States of America

Full Bibliographic Reference for this chapter
L.G. Moradi, J.S. Davidson, "Analysis and Design of Membrane Retrofit Concrete Masonry Walls for Blast Loads", in J.W. Bull, (Editor), "Computer Analysis and Design of Masonry Structures", Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirlingshire, UK, Chapter 10, pp 279-307, 2017.
Keywords: blast, masonry, membrane retrofit, protection, resistance.

Concrete masonry provides an efficient and effective means to construct exterior infill walls for buildings of various heights and is widely used worldwide. However, it is well recognized that unreinforced masonry (URM) walls are vulnerable to blast pressure, resulting in collapse, fragmentation, and injury to occupants. Over the past two decades, extensive experimental and analytical research has been conducted on the behavior and resistance of URM walls retrofitted with methods for increasing out-ofplane resistance and ductility. These retrofit materials have varied from relatively soft elastomeric coatings to very stiff composites and metal sheets. Some retrofit materials were bonded to the masonry wall, which resulted in an integrated system response, while others were not bonded to the masonry and the membrane simply acted as a barrier that prevented secondary fragmentation from entering the occupied space. This chapter presents resistance function definitions developed for membrane retrofit URM walls. This includes bonded and not-bonded membrane retrofit scenarios, and addresses arching behavior of the masonry wall and potential variable rotation resistance at the supports. The resistance functions were further incorporated into single-degree-of- freedom systems to predict the wall response to blast loads. The accuracy and applicability of the developed analytical methodology was demonstrated through correlation to full scale explosion tests involving a wide range of design, geometry, and material characteristics. The ultimate goal of the research is to provide structural engineers with a proven practical tool for the design of membrane retrofit masonry walls to resist blast pressures.

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