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Civil-Comp Proceedings
ISSN 1759-3433
CCP: 96
PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CIVIL, STRUCTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING COMPUTING
Edited by: B.H.V. Topping and Y. Tsompanakis
Paper 35

Window Design and Lighting Control for Low Carbon Buildings

H. Kim, H.J. Kong, J.D. Choi, J.T. Kim and G.Y. Yun

Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea

Full Bibliographic Reference for this paper
H. Kim, H.J. Kong, J.D. Choi, J.T. Kim, G.Y. Yun, "Window Design and Lighting Control for Low Carbon Buildings", in B.H.V. Topping, Y. Tsompanakis, (Editors), "Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing", Civil-Comp Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 35, 2011. doi:10.4203/ccp.96.35
Keywords: glazing type, lighting control, annual energy consumption, EnergyPlus.

Summary
Windows have the largest amount of heat loss in buildings because they are thermally weak points. The heat loss through windows accounts for 10 to 30 percent of the energy consumption in non-domestic buildings [1]. Using multiple glazing or glazing with a low-e coating are methods to decrease the cooling and heating loads [2]. Reducing heating, cooling and lighting energy consumption with proper window design and lighting control strategies can be an effective way to save the building energy consumption. The purpose of this study is to contribute to reducing the energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable indoor environment. This study investigated changes in heating, cooling and lighting energy consumption as a function of lighting control strategies and glazing types.

This paper considers two parameters to reduce the energy consumption: window glazing types and lighting control methods. Furthermore, three kinds of lighting control strategies such as 'always switching on', 'linear' and 'stepped' are considered. The linear control dims the overhead lights continuously and linearly, except that the lights switch off completely when the minimum dimming point is reached. The stepped control allows the building occupier to switch the lighting on or off according to the availability of natural daylight. In the reference model, clear double glazing was used and electric lighting was always switched on [3].

Our study confirms that the careful selection of glazing types and lighting control methods is useful to reduce building energy consumption. In particular, the annual heating energy consumption was significantly reduced by the application of triple low-e glazing. The heating energy consumption was reduced by 16 percent in comparison with the reference model. On the other, the annual lighting energy consumption was more influenced by the lighting control methods than the types of glazing. As compared with the reference model, the linear lighting control strategy reduced the lighting energy used by 70 percent. The cooling energy use was affected by both the glazing types and the lighting control methods. The variation in the cooling energy consumption was 6 percent for lighting control strategies, and was 7 percent for the window glazing types.

References
1
Ministry of Construction & Transportation, "A study on the climate change and long-term measure according to energy conservation in building", Ministry of Construction & Transportation, Korea, 1999.
2
N. Lechner, "Heating, Cooling, Lighting", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.
3
DesignBuilder software Ltd, "DisignBuilder(Version2.1)[Computer software and manual]", DesignBuilder software Ltd, U.K., 2009.

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