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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CIVIL, STRUCTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING COMPUTING
Edited by: B.H.V. Topping
A Computational Analysis of Bagdadi and Himis Structures
N. Kiraç and M. Dogan
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey
, "A Computational Analysis of Bagdadi and Himis Structures", in B.H.V. Topping, (Editor), "Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing", Civil-Comp Press, Stirlingshire, UK, Paper 208, 2007. doi:10.4203/ccp.86.208
Keywords: bagdadi structure, himis structure, solid, wood frame, seismic, adobe, lateral load.
The stuctures examined in this study are historically old himis and bagdadi structures which are considered under the wooden or stone-earth structures. It is possible to define these structures as special regional structures. Though they are old. The number of these structures are many and they are still being actively used. Some buildings are being used for schooling in some rural regions. The subject was taken into consideration since these structures were built without engineering services and are considered to be worn out. Because of intensive seismic activity of Turkey, there is a real need of the research of these structures for their earthquake resistance.
Himis and bagdadi buildings are usually constructed of timber structural elements. The seismic resistance of wood structures is relatively high, provided the quality of materials and the construction are satisfactory. The buildings generally tend to be lightweight, especially when compared to brick or stone, which helps reduce earthquake forces on the structures. In addition, because of the relatively large number of walls and the use of numerous nailed connections, wood-frame houses have traditionally performed well in earthquakes so that deaths and serious injuries are rare. Inadequate connection of the building to its foundation is a critical issue for all types of wooden structures. During a seismic event, buildings that are not properly bolted to their foundation may move off the foundation, causing structural damage and possible severance of water, gas or electrical services. All countries under discussion highlight this as a major seismic deficiency.
This research is conducted on existing structures, it has been found out that they can be classified as reinforced concrete structures, steel structures, masonry structures and wood structures when considering the materials with which they have been constructed. The wood structures can be classified as log, bonding timber (horizontal connecting member), himis, dizeme and bagdadi.
In this study the behavior of the himis and bagdadi structures under lateral loads are analysed. Himis and bagdadi structures are modeled and analysed using SAP 2000. Timber structural elements such as beams and columns are modeled as framed elements. Adobe, brick and stone elements are modeled as solid , and the analysis is done for the lateral loads. After the calculations these type of structures are found to be more ductile when compared with the reinforced concrete and masonry structures.
At the end of the research it has also been found out that shear forces and forces are greater in the bagdadi structures when compared with the himis structures. Displacement of an overhang himis and bagdadi structure is much more when compared with one without an overhang structure. In other words, the displacement values of an overhang structure are greater. Also from examining the results obtained from solutions it is found out that bagdadi structures have more displacement capacity than himis structures.
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