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Civil-Comp Proceedings
ISSN 1759-3433
CCP: 32
Edited by: B.H.V. Topping
Paper VI.2

Force Distributions in Partially Restrained Connections

R.M. Richard

Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, USA

Full Bibliographic Reference for this paper
R.M. Richard, "Force Distributions in Partially Restrained Connections", in B.H.V. Topping, (Editor), "Developments in Computational Techniques for Civil Engineering", Civil-Comp Press, Edinburgh, UK, pp 121-128, 1995. doi:10.4203/ccp.32.6.2
Semi-rigid or Partially Restrained (PR) connections have been defined in both the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and the Load and Resistant Factor Design (LRFD) specifications by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and in Eurocodes 3 and 4. In these codes the concepts of PR connections were defined in order to accurately model and produce efficient and economical steel frame structures. Full scale laboratory tests have shown that typical shear connections such as double framing angles, single plates, and end shear (header) plates can generate 10 to 20 percent of the beam fixed end moment (FEM). When these connections are combined with a seat connection or both top and seat angles, 25 to 50 percent of the FEM may easily be generated. Moreover, when the shear connections with seats are used for composite beams with negative steel reinforcement over the supports, these connections may be designed to generate 50 percent or more of the FEM. Composite connection research has shown that a small amount of reinforcing steel (e.g., of the order of one half the area of the steel beam flange) will generate moment forces requiring a seated or a reinforced bottom flange connection. Presented herein are typical force distributions in these partially restrained connections for both non-composite and composite beams.

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